China Bubonic Plague 2020: New Plague 2020 | China City Bubonic Plague Causes, Diagnosis, Prevention, Treatment:
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.One to seven days after exposure to the bacteria, flu-like symptoms develop.These symptoms include fever, headaches, and vomiting.Swollen and painful lymph nodes occur in the area closest to where the bacteria entered the skin.Occasionally, the swollen lymph nodes may break open.
The three types of plague are the result of the route of infection: bubonic plague, septicemic plague, and pneumonic plague. Bubonic plague is mainly spread by infected fleas from small animals. It may also result from exposure to the body fluids from a dead plague-infected animal.In the bubonic form of plague, the bacteria enter through the skin through a flea bite and travel via the lymphatic vessels to a lymph node, causing it to swell.Diagnosis is made by finding the bacteria in the blood, sputum, or fluid from lymph nodes.
Prevention is through public health measures such as not handling dead animals in areas where plague is common.Vaccines have not been found to be very useful for plague prevention.Several antibiotics are effective for treatment, including streptomycin, gentamicin, and doxycycline. Without treatment, plague results in the death of 30% to 90% of those infected.
Death, if it occurs, is typically within ten days. With treatment the risk of death is around 10%.Globally between 2010 and 2015 there were 3248 documented cases, which resulted in 584 deaths.The countries with the greatest number of cases are the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Madagascar, and Peru.
The plague was the cause of the Black Death that swept through Asia, Europe, and Africa in the 14th century and killed an estimated 50 million people. This was about 25% to 60% of the European population.Because the plague killed so many of the working population, wages rose due to the demand for labor. Some historians see this as a turning point in European economic development.
The disease was also responsible for the Justinian plague originating in the Eastern Roman Empire in the 6th century CE, as well as the third epidemic affecting China, Mongolia, and India originating in the Yunnan Province in 1855.The term bubonic is derived from the Greek word βουβών, meaning “groin”.The term “buboes” is also used to refer to the swollen lymph nodes.
Bubonic Plague Causes:
Bubonic plague is an infection of the lymphatic system, usually resulting from the bite of an infected flea, Xenopsylla cheopis (the rat flea). In very rare circumstances, as in the septicemic plague, the disease can be transmitted by direct contact with infected tissue or exposure to the cough of another human. The flea is parasitic on house and field rats, and seeks out other prey when its rodent hosts die. The bacteria remain harmless to the flea, allowing the new host to spread the bacteria. The bacteria form aggregates in the gut of infected fleas and this results in the flea regurgitating ingested blood, which is now infected, into the bite site of a rodent or human host. Once established, bacteria rapidly spread to the lymph nodes and multiply.
Y. pestis bacilli can resist phagocytosis and even reproduce inside phagocytes and kill them. As the disease progresses, the lymph nodes can hemorrhage and become swollen and necrotic. Bubonic plague can progress to lethal septicemic plague in some cases. The plague is also known to spread to the lungs and become the disease known as the pneumonic plague.
Bubonic Plague Diagnosis:
Laboratory testing is required in order to diagnose and confirm plague. Ideally, confirmation is through the identification of Y. pestis culture from a patient sample. Confirmation of infection can be done by examining serum taken during the early and late stages of infection. To quickly screen for the Y. pestis antigen in patients, rapid dipstick tests have been developed for field use.
Samples taken for testing include:
- Buboes: Swollen lymph nodes (buboes) characteristic of bubonic plague, a fluid sample can be taken from them with a needle.
Bubonic Plague Prevention:
Targeted chemoprophylaxis, sanitation, and vector control played a role in controlling the 2003 Oran outbreak of the bubonic plague.
Bubonic Plague Treatment:
Several classes of antibiotics are effective in treating bubonic plague. These include aminoglycosides such as streptomycin and gentamicin, tetracyclines (especially doxycycline), and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. Mortality associated with treated cases of bubonic plague is about 1–15%, compared to a mortality of 40–60% in untreated cases.
People potentially infected with the plague need immediate treatment and should be given antibiotics within 24 hours of the first symptoms to prevent death. Other treatments include oxygen, intravenous fluids, and respiratory support. People who have had contact with anyone infected by pneumonic plague are given prophylactic antibiotics.Using the broad-based antibiotic streptomycin has proven to be dramatically successful against the bubonic plague within 12 hours of infection.